Antibody levels and response to pneumococcal vaccine in steroid-dependent asthma

The session on “Novel antibody display, selection and screening technologies”, chaired by Andrew Bradbury , ., . Research Scientist and Group Leader, Los Alamos National Laboratories; Chief Scientific Officer, Specifica, focusses on the new technologies expected to advance antibody library generation and selection in the future. Many of these reflect the rapidly growing role of next generation sequencing (NGS) in all aspects of in vitro antibody generation. Dr. Bradbury will discuss how NGS has enabled more informed discussions on antibody library sizes, and how traditional selection from antibody libraries does not address the full depth of possible positive antibodies. Tim Whitehead (Michigan State University) will discuss the power of NGS in protein engineering to analyze the outcomes of different selective pressures on antibody stability, affinity and function, and to use this information in antibody discovery programs, while Brandon DeKosky (The University of Kansas) will describe how the combination of cloning natural paired antibody responses to viruses with yeast display vectors provides insights into neutralizing HIV and Ebola responses. In addition to NGS, Benjamin Hackel (University of Minnesota) will describe the engineering of novel alternative novel yeast display vectors as applied to the development of novel small non-antibody scaffolds. James Wells (UCSF) will describe an innovative use of novel proteomic technologies involving phage display to both understand how cancer cells remodel their membrane proteomes, as well as to generate recombinant antibodies against them. Once potential therapeutic antibody leads have been identified, they need to be further developed before they can be used in the clinic. This involves understanding and overcoming fundamental challenges related to the design and selection of antibodies with high affinity, specificity, stability and solubility, a topic that will addressed by Peter Tessier (University of Michigan).

The discovery of IgE allowed the development of immuno-assays for IgE and IgE-antibodies, enabling direct and objective measurement of the extent and specificity of the immune response. Immunoassays such as RAST (radio allergosorbent assay),, FAST (fluorescent allergosorbant test) and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay) have been developed each using a different detection system. For each assay, allergens are linked to paper discs or polyurethane caps (ImmunoCAP) and are incubated with the individual's serum. Binding of IgE specific to allergens is detected by the use of an enzyme linked anti-human IgE antibody leading either to a colorimetric or fluorescent product that can be measured. There is a good correlation between the results of serum tests for IgE antibodies, and positive skin and provocation tests, as well as symptoms of allergy. Positive in-vitro results to a specific allergen demonstrate IgE sensitization but are not proof that the allergen is the cause of clinical symptoms.

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Amylase is an enzyme that has several different forms called isoenzymes. Different tissues make different forms. P-amylase refers to the type of amylase made mainly in the pancreas. S-amylase refers to the type of amylase made mainly by the salivary glands. P-amylase in the blood increases when the pancreas is inflamed or damaged. S-amylase in the blood increases when the salivary gland is inflamed or damaged. Measuring pancreatic amylase, or P-amylase, may be useful in determining if an increase in a total amylase level is due to acute pancreatitis .

During acute HIV infection, prior to the appearance of antibody (window period or pre-seroconversion), HIV infection can be confirmed only by the demonstration of circulating p24 antigen, or by the presence of viral RNA or DNA. Although highly sensitive antibody assays exist to detect very low levels of HIV antibody in blood, the window period prior to appearance of antibody rarely can be shortened to less than 3 weeks. Once antibody has appeared, titers progressively increase during 3-5 months until levels peak, at which time they remain fairly constant throughout the remainder of infection. Also, antibodies during early infection usually are of low avidity, but avidity increases as infection progresses. Therefore, HIV infection can be divided into categories of recent or established infection, depending on the quantity of antibody present or their avidities. These parameters can be exploited as tools in order to estimate the relative time that HIV infection occurred. For example, if antibody titers or antibody avidity is low, it is likely that infection occurred within the past 4 months; conversely, high-titer or high-avidity antibodies signal an established infection that has been present for longer than 4 months. Several epidemiological studies have used the S/LS testing strategy to predict incidence in San Francisco and in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.( 6-8 )

Antibody levels and response to pneumococcal vaccine in steroid-dependent asthma

antibody levels and response to pneumococcal vaccine in steroid-dependent asthma

Amylase is an enzyme that has several different forms called isoenzymes. Different tissues make different forms. P-amylase refers to the type of amylase made mainly in the pancreas. S-amylase refers to the type of amylase made mainly by the salivary glands. P-amylase in the blood increases when the pancreas is inflamed or damaged. S-amylase in the blood increases when the salivary gland is inflamed or damaged. Measuring pancreatic amylase, or P-amylase, may be useful in determining if an increase in a total amylase level is due to acute pancreatitis .

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