Fsh and lh steroid hormones

They are very helpful in looking at the brain and spinal cord and are considered to be the best way to find pituitary tumors of all types. MRI images are usually more detailed than those from CT scans (see below). They can show macroadenomas of the pituitary gland, as well as most microadenomas. But MRI might not detect microadenomas that are smaller than 3 mm (about 1/8 inch) across. Sometimes the MRI scan will show a small change in the pituitary that has nothing to do with the patient’s symptoms. Between 5% and 25% of healthy people have some minor abnormality of the pituitary gland that shows up on an MRI scan.

In persons with evidence of poor ovarian or testicular function, LH is sometimes measured in response to administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) to distinguish between disorders involving the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. GnRH is the hormone produced by the hypothalamus that stimulates the pituitary to release LH and FSH. For this test, a baseline blood sample is drawn and then the person is given an injection of GnRH. Subsequent blood samples are drawn at specified times and the level of LH is measured. This test can help differentiate between a disorder of the pituitary (secondary), when LH will not respond to GnRH, or hypothalamus (tertiary), when LH responds to GnRH. It is also often helpful in the evaluation of precocious or delayed puberty.

Micropenis refers to an extremely small penis with a stretched penile length of less than SD below the mean for age or stage of sexual development. It should be differentiated from a buried or hidden penis and aphallia. It is important to use a standard technique of stretched penile measurement and nomograms for age to identify children with micropenis. All children above 1 year of age with a stretched penile length of less than cm need evaluation. Based on etiology they can be classified as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (hypothalamic or pituitary failure), hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (testicular failure), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome and idiopathic groups. The help of a pediatric endocrinologist, geneticist, pediatric surgeon and/or urologist is often necessary. Growth velocity is an important determinant of associated hypothalamic or pituitary pathology. GnRH and/or hCG stimulation tests are often helpful in evaluating the etiology. Similarly chromosomal studies are indicated in a few. Often the diagnosis is inferred by the presence of clinical features suggestive of a syndrome usually associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Irrespective of the underlying cause a short course of testosterone should be tried in patients with micropenis and an assessment of the penis to respond should be made. Transdermal DHT has also been reported to be effective in prepubertal children. Children with hypopituitarism and GH deficiency respond to appropriate hormonal therapy. Surgical correction is not indicated in the common endocrine types of micropenis. Many studies have shown that most testosterone treated children have satisfactory gain in length of penis and sexual function. Thus sexual reassignment is done very infrequently now.

FSH and LH are secreted by the anterior pituitary in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) secreted by the hypothalamus. In both males and females, FSH and LH secretion is regulated by a balance of positive and negative feedback mechanisms involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the reproductive organs, and the pituitary and sex steroid hormones. FSH and LH play a critical role in maintaining the normal function of the male and female reproductive systems. Abnormal FSH levels with corresponding increased or decreased levels of LH, estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone are associated with a number of pathological conditions. Increased FSH levels are associated with menopause and primary ovarian hypofunction in females and primary hypogonadism in males. Decreased levels of FSH are associated with primary ovarian hyper-function in females and primary hypergonadism in males. Normal or decreased levels of FSH are associated with polycystic ovary disease in females. In males, LH is also called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH). Abnormal LH levels with corresponding increased or decreased levels of FSH, estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone are associated with a number of pathological conditions. Increased LH levels are associated with menopause, primary ovarian hypofunction, and polycystic ovary disease in females and primary hypo-gonadism in males. Decreased LH levels are associated with primary ovarian hyperfunction in females and primary hyper-gonadism in males.

Fsh and lh steroid hormones

fsh and lh steroid hormones

FSH and LH are secreted by the anterior pituitary in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) secreted by the hypothalamus. In both males and females, FSH and LH secretion is regulated by a balance of positive and negative feedback mechanisms involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the reproductive organs, and the pituitary and sex steroid hormones. FSH and LH play a critical role in maintaining the normal function of the male and female reproductive systems. Abnormal FSH levels with corresponding increased or decreased levels of LH, estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone are associated with a number of pathological conditions. Increased FSH levels are associated with menopause and primary ovarian hypofunction in females and primary hypogonadism in males. Decreased levels of FSH are associated with primary ovarian hyper-function in females and primary hypergonadism in males. Normal or decreased levels of FSH are associated with polycystic ovary disease in females. In males, LH is also called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH). Abnormal LH levels with corresponding increased or decreased levels of FSH, estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone are associated with a number of pathological conditions. Increased LH levels are associated with menopause, primary ovarian hypofunction, and polycystic ovary disease in females and primary hypo-gonadism in males. Decreased LH levels are associated with primary ovarian hyperfunction in females and primary hyper-gonadism in males.

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