An indirect harmful effect caused by insects is the use of pesticides and other chemical controls to prevent them from damaging crops and gardens. Many fields are sprayed with pesticides on a regular basis. These pesticides can harm small animals and even people who are regularly exposed to the chemicals in them. Food growers are sometimes criticized for heavy use of pesticides as well. Environmental groups monitor use of pesticides and try to influence alternatives to controlling harmful effects insects have on fields and plant growth.
It is not clear what sort of risk the possibility of conferring antibiotic resistance to bacteria presents. No one has ever observed bacteria incorporating new DNA from the digestive system under controlled laboratory conditions. The two types of antibiotic resistance genes used by biotechnologists are ones that already exist in bacteria in nature so the process would not introduce new antibiotic resistance to bacteria. Never the less it is a concern and the FDA is encouraging biotechnologists to phase out the practice of using antibiotic resistance genes (GEO-PIE website).
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