Once a paradigm shift has taken place, the textbooks are rewritten. Often the history of science too is rewritten, being presented as an inevitable process leading up to the current, established framework of thought. There is a prevalent belief that all hitherto-unexplained phenomena will in due course be accounted for in terms of this established framework. Kuhn states that scientists spend most (if not all) of their careers in a process of puzzle-solving. Their puzzle-solving is pursued with great tenacity, because the previous successes of the established paradigm tend to generate great confidence that the approach being taken guarantees that a solution to the puzzle exists, even though it may be very hard to find. Kuhn calls this process normal science .
Here’s a simple, classic and all too common example. Suppose a company has a strategy to deliver superior customer service. Every part of their firm has been developed to do this consistently. This strategy has resulted in their having an image of offering great service and support. Then profit margins get squeezed due to competitors actions and the company responds by laying off employees and shrinking some departments. They think they can do this without it affecting their service image. Usually, they are wrong because their service slips (the structure side) due to the change in strategy (making cost reduction a higher priority than service).